The blockchain’s trilemma of scalability has created various sustainability challenges for web3 projects. However, Layer2 solutions like Rollups have tackled this issue well. Blockchain startups with a huge number of users and high traffic congestion can now build their own rollup chain to achieve high levels of customizability, security, and, most importantly– near-infinite scalability. OP-Stack is one such standardized, easy-to-deploy framework that facilitates the rapid development of Optimistic Rollup chains. OP-stack basically breaks down the complex process of building optimistic Rollups into a simplified process by offering a complete set of software components, tools, and frameworks.
With time, Op Stack evolved to become a full-fledged stack. Speaking about the most recent addition to OP Stack Rollups, it is the concept of Superchain. This Superchain, as per OP Stack, is a collection of chains that consists of various layers, including bridging, on-chain governance, upgrades, communication, layer, and more– which are all built with OP stack. Through this article, we will dive deeper into the concept of Opstack and its important component– Superchains. This way, we will be able to understand OP stack and Superchain’s value proposition in enhancing the capabilities of Layer-2 scaling solutions.
OP-Stack is a standardized, open-source, and shared developer stack that enables projects to rapidly build optimistic Rollup. Op Stack includes different modular software components that together form the infrastructure for the Optimism network. OP stack offers already-built modules that web3 projects can leverage based on their project’s requirements for utility, simplicity, and extensibility. Modules on OP Stack are simple and understandable. And, being open-source, anyone can leverage them to build their Rollup chain. However, these modules are extensive so that users can customize the existing modules and serve the specific needs of their use case.
Decoding the Idea of OP Superchains
Given that OP Stack allows Optimistic Rollups to be deployed and maintained on a common infrastructure, Optimism ecosystem came with the idea that a high degree of interoperability can be achieved between all different rollup networks. This forms an interconnected ecosystem of Layer-2s– known as OP Superchains, enabling independent Layer-2s to seamlessly interoperate and transact. By offering this shared development stack, the Superchain allows web3 projects to build Optimistic Rollups that not only provide unprecedented scalability and customizability to the associated dApps but also allow the applications to gain interoperability. Superchains achieves cross-chain messaging across various OP Chains through an Optimism bridge that sits between OP Stack chains and Layer-1 blockchain like Ethereum.
Besides enabling cross-chain interoperability, Superchain also eliminates the security trade-offs that come with the traditional multi-architecture of blockchain. For this, Superchain enables horizontal scaling, which maintains compliance despite the more number of chains added in the network. Superchain is said to be the next big upgrade after Optimism’s Bedrock.
The architecture and different layers of OP Stack
The standard architecture of Rollups built with OP Stack includes different stack layers and specific modules that allow for the building of high-performing Optimistic Rollups. Speaking about how an OP Stack chain performs L2-specific functionality, let’s understand the whole mechanism through the below image which include the following five core concepts–
- Execution Node: op-geth
- Rollup Node: op-node
- Proving scheme: Cannon
- Batch submission of L2 blocks
- Derivation of L1 Block data
1. Execution node: Op-geth is an extended Ethereum’s execution client that can handle specific functionality on Layer-2 rollups, for example– accepting token deposits from Layer-1. This layer of the OP Stack defines all functions responsible for mutation of the execution state. Here, State transitions are triggered based on the inputs received from the Rollup Node (sequence and validators) via Engine API.
2. Rollup node: OP-node or Rollup node include sequencers and validators. This node can be run both in the sequencer and verifier mode. Here, Sequencers are in charge of batching the processed transactions from Layer-2 and posting them on the main L1 chain. Sequencers define the way transactions on a OP Stack-based chain will be collected and published. Whereas, validators/verifiers check the validity of the batched transactions and submit proof against any fraud if detected.
3. Proving scheme: Cannon is an updated version of Geth that is responsible for running EVM within VMs during the stage of fraud detection and proofing. It’s basically an on-chain dispute engine that coordinates with sequencers and verifiers via API for the purpose of proving a faulty transaction.
4. Batch submission: Sequencers once batch all the processed transactions, and verifiers validate it, then Sequencers submit the batched transactions to Layer-1; Ethereum.
5. Derivation: Derivation allows sequencers and validators to derive raw data from Layer-1 to process them and form final inputs that are provided to the execution layer for passing the transaction load off this chain. To accomplish this task, the Derivation layer can use Standard Ethereum Engine API and the current system state.
All these first three components– execution node, rollup node, and providing scheme interact with base chain (Layer-1) through a token bridge for the purpose of final transaction settlement, achieving consensus, and data availability.
Who all are building Rollups using the OP-Stack codebase?
Optimism’s Superchain vision, empowered by the OP-Stack which has been allowing all kinds of web3 projects, from newly launched ones to the biggest players to build Optimistic Rollups. Coinbase, Gitcoin, and Zora have already announced their launch of optimistic rollups. Coinbase, being the most prominent name, has recently launched an OP stack-based rollup called Base. With this, Coinbase plans to bring its 100M users on the rollup chain, thereby creating no network congestion on the main chain.
Regarding Zora, they leverage OP Stack to build their OP Stack-based rollup chain and thus expand their Ethereum-based project for millions of new artists, creators, and worldwide communities. Their Rollup launch will make their transaction on Ethereum cheaper while increasing throughput and enhancing overall user experience.
Also, BSC chose the Optimism Roll-Op Stack to launch opBNB for leveraging their maximum modularity to enhance performance. BNB claims that their OP based chain– opBNB can achieve the capacity of processing 4000+ TPS, and it can offer 1 second block time with a transaction fee lower than $0.005. Hence, launching the OP stack chain seems a great fit for BNB.
The efficacy of the Op-Stack rollup solutions attracts other players as well as World Coin, which is heavily working on decentralized identities and Coinbase’s Base, which has already supported one of the most ambitious projects across DeSo, Friend.Tech. This is just the initial stage of how Op-Stack could supercharge the rollups ecosystem and envisage a new demand for R-a-a-S or RollUps-as-a-Service to help scale the L2s for further adoption ahead.
How can Zeeve RaaS help you launch your own rollups?
Zeeve’s Rollups-as-a-Service is optimized to support all kinds of Rollups implementations– including Optimistic Rollups and Zk Rollups. The DevOps team at Zeeve has extensive experience in using the OP Stack framework, its already-built modules, tools, and codebase. Zeeve, we offer a wizard-based configuration panel along with customizable modules, and templates, which allows web3 projects to build Optimistic Rollups based on specific requirements. Zeeve removes your hassle of managing infrastructure, running nodes, or getting crucial components ready such as explorers wallets, testnet faucets, and even custom data indexing protocols like Subgraph and Subquery.
Zeeve monitors all your Rollup chains on critical parameters while maintaining 99.99% uptime and performance. With Zeeve, you get access to a graphical, real-time dashboard showing the performance of your Rollup chain with details like uptime, disk usage, storage running out, and current block height, etc. Zeeve guarantees the reliability of its Rollups-as-a-service offering with ISO 27001 and SOC 2 Type 2 compliance and enterprise-level SLA.
If you are looking to launch a Rollup chain or you want to migrate your dApp to a Rollup-based ecosystem, Zeeve facilitates seamless migration for this. For more information on how Zeeve is simplifying Rollup launch, connect with our experts or become a part of our active community discussion.